15 May 2019 : Application Note – Test for Abnormal Waveforms when Switching to UPS Power

Importance of Maintaining the Proper Operation of Uninterruptible Power Supplies (UPS)

Industrial uninterruptible power supply (UPS) equipment helps protect important office equipment and plant machines against damage from sudden power failures, unstable power, or power supplies ridden with harmonics.  They serve as a power backup to your mission critical systems until the main power supply is up and running again.

Given the role of UPS, it is extremely important for businesses and plants to conduct regular maintenance tests to verify that UPS equipment is operating properly and that there is no adverse effect on business machines and other connected devices when the power supply is switched over in the  event of an outage.

What Signal Do You Measure?

It is typical to measure only voltage in this application.

For most inexpensive UPS equipment, a sine wave is not generated to align its output with the power output of the permanent power source it is meant to back up.  This may cause a voltage dip (sag) or a momentary interruption when the switchover from grid to battery power occurs, which in turn may cause connected equipment to stop or devices to malfunction, rendering installation of the UPS pointless.

How Do You Measure the UPS?

One way to measure the effectiveness of the UPS is to simulate a power outage and then conduct tests to verify that there are no issues with power quality when the switchover from grid power to the UPS occurs. At this time, also verify that connected devices do not malfunction. When measurements are carried out as part of UPS maintenance, personnel check for problems and use the data they gather to help schedule repair work and equipment replacement. Users of UPS equipment perform similar tests to check whether devices will malfunction in the event of an outage due to issues with the UPS and whether the UPS is indeed responsible for causing any such malfunctions.

Conventional Approach vs. using a PQA

The traditional approach to measuring UPS has generally been to record waveforms with a digital storage oscilloscope or similar instrument. Because trigger conditions are limited and recording impossible with certain settings, it was common to miss problem points in the data.

Hioki provides a more effective approach with the PQ3198 Power Quality Analyzer.

The PW3198, which was developed for use in power supply quality applications, provides a variety of event trigger functions such as voltage drop, rise, noise, waveforms, and harmonics, allowing it to reliably capture problematic phenomena that may occur when switching over to UPS power. Additionally, since it can monitor a measurement target over extended periods of time, it not only records simulated outage tests, but also functions continuously to verify whether any problems have occurred in the event of actual outages.

Note: Voltage Swells and Dips Can Stress UPS

It is also important to remember that for UPS that do not align its signal with the permanent power source, voltage swells and dips as shown in the graph will occur.  Too many of these voltage anomalies over time can stress the UPS and reduce its operating life.



Related Product:
PQ3198 Power Quality Analyzer

2 May 2019 : Hioki Launches Impulse Winding Tester ST4030

Hioki Launches Impulse Winding Tester ST4030

New Solution: Testing Motor Windings By Quantifying Response Waveforms

May 2, 2019 – Singapore

 HIOKI Singapore Pte. Ltd.  is pleased to announce the launch of the Impulse Winding Tester ST4030, the company’s first instrument to provide functionality for testing for defects in motor windings.

When the newly launched product is combined with Hioki’s existing resistance meter and withstand voltage tester offerings, the company now provides a full lineup of instruments needed to test motor windings on manufacturing lines.

The ST4030 uses the new method of response waveform quantification*1 to detect layer shorts (insulation defects)*2 that cannot be detected by the standard approach of comparing area values arising from discrepancies between waveforms. Additionally, the new instrument delivers the performance to detect waveforms with a high degree of precision thanks to 12 MHz sampling and 12-bit resolution, and it can be used with the Discharge Detection Upgrade ST9000 (featuring proprietary HIOKI filtering technology)*3 to detect partial discharges caused by pseudo-shorts*4.

Impulse winding testers are used to test for layer shorts between windings that occur in components such as motor inductors or coils.  Typically, the waveform captured when the impulse voltage is applied to a known-good part (the master waveform) is used as a reference to generate pass/fail judgments by comparing it with a test waveform to gauge any differences in area.

With the move toward electric and self-driving vehicles driving up the quality of parts used in vehicles in recent years, motor windings are subject to increasingly strict reliability requirements. Because defects can lead to serious accidents and failures, manufacturers must guarantee the quality of motors used in vehicles over the long term.

However, it is difficult to detect failures, for example, single-turn faults, that do not appear in waveforms using the typical inspection method of comparing waveform area values.  Additionally, there has been increasing demand from manufacturers for the ability to detect minuscule partial discharges that are obscured by noise so that motor deterioration can be diagnosed with a high degree of precision. HIOKI developed the ST4030 to meet these requirements.

1. New Solution
 – Detect single-turn faults by quantifying response waveforms
The ST4030 makes quantitative judgments by digitizing response waveforms. Since n-turn shorts such as single-turn faults that cannot be detected by the typical approach of comparing the area of waveforms do appear as differences in the values, the instrument can distinguish clearly between defective and non-defective parts.

2. Proprietary HIOKI Technology – Detect pseudo-shorts with the Discharge Detection Upgrade
Pseudo-shorts can be identified by detecting discharges. However, the phenomenon is difficult to differentiate from noise components due to the small difference in voltage it produces and the high frequencies involved. The ST4030 delivers the performance needed to detect waveforms with a high degree of precision, and the Discharge Detection Upgrade ST900 (featuring proprietary HIOKI filtering technology) can be used to reject noise components from high-frequency components appearing in response waveforms so that partial discharges can be isolated and used to generate pass/fail judgments.  Additionally, the ST9000 eliminates the need for additional equipment required in the traditional approach (for example, antennas used to detect discharges).

3. Test motors after rotor installation*5
Because the waveforms used in the area comparison judgment method vary depending on the position at which the rotor has been installed, it has not been possible to set clear judgment standards for motors whose rotor has already been installed.  By contrast, the ST4030’s value-based judgment method allows judgment areas to be defined even after the rotor has been installed so that the system can distinguish between defective and non-defective parts.

  1. High-precision waveform detection

The ST4030 can detect waveforms with a high degree of precision thanks to its 200 MHz high-speed sampling and high 12-bit resolution.

5. Use accumulated data to increase test quality
Quantification of response waveforms allows test data to be managed in a numerical manner. By subjecting accumulated data to statistical processing and providing it as feedback to upstream processes, customers can help estimate and prevent winding defects and thereby improve quality.

·      Vehicle motors
·      Inductors (coils)

*1 Response waveform quantification utilizes patents owned by Toenec Corporation.
*2 Layer short: The windings in a coil (including the motor) must be covered with insulation (enamel), but the insulation resistance may be compromised due to a defect, resulting in a short-circuit. Such shorts are known as layer shorts or rare shorts. Principal causes include damage to the insulation due to heating or mechanical friction as well as deterioration over time.
*3 Developed jointly with Aisin AW Co., Ltd.
*4 The Discharge Detection Upgrade ST9000 is a factory option.

*5 The rotor is the part of the motor that rotates when current is passed through it.

Catalog: IMPULSE WINDING TESTER ST4030 Download PDF  [3MB] English


Established in 1935, HIOKI E.E. CORPORATION (TSE: 6866) has grown to become a world leader in providing  consistent delivery of test and measuring  instruments through advanced design, manufacturing, and sales and services. By offering over 200 main products characterized by safety and quality while meeting an expansive range of applications, we aim to contribute to the efficiency  and value of our customers’ work  in research and development, production and electrical maintenance. HIOKI products and services are available around the world through our extensive network of subsidiaries and distributors. Information about HIOKI is available at www.hioki.com.sg

2 May 2019 : Application Note – HIOKI PQ3198

Measure Lightning-induced Voltage Dips in a Low-Voltage Circuit
You can measure the effects of a voltage dip caused by lightning on the low-voltage circuit of a highvoltage
system using the PQ3198 Power Quality Analyzer.

• There is no way to avoid a voltage dip caused by lightning hitting a high-voltage system. This also causes a
voltage dip in the low-voltage circuit so utility users need to take measures.
• A dip event function of the PQ3198 Power Quality Analyzer is useful in detecting a voltage dip. The dip event
function detects a voltage dip when the voltage RMS value falls below the threshold.
• When a dip event occurs, it records the changes in the RMS value during a period of 0.5 s before the event and
during a period of 29.5 s after the event and the instantaneous waveforms during a period of 200 ms when the event occurs.

■The difference between PQ3198 and PQ3100
• PQ3198 records instantaneous waveforms of 200ms when occurring the voltage drop event and max. 1 sec
after the event.
• PQ3100 records instantaneous waveforms of max. 1 sec before the voltage drop event, 200ms when occurring
the voltage drop event, and max. 10 secs after the event.

Products Used
• Power Quality Analyzer PQ3198
• Power Quality Analyzer PQ3198-92 (kit including 600A sensor*4 and an application software)
• Power Quality Analyzer PQ3198-94 (kit including 6000A sensor*4 and an application software)
• Power Quality Analyzer PQ3100
• Power Quality Analyzer PQ3100-91 (kit including 600A sensor*2 and an application software)
• Power Quality Analyzer PQ3100-92 (kit including 600A sensor*4 and an application software)
• Power Quality Analyzer PQ3100-94 (kit including 6000A sensor*4 and an application software)

More Information
PQ3198 Power Quality Analyzer

18 April 2019 : Application Note – HIOKI HiCorder MR8880-20 For Automotive Clutch Evaluation Testing

HIOKI HiCorder MR8880-20 For Automotive Clutch Evaluation Testing

Automotive Clutch & Its Functionality
An automotive clutch is a mechanical device in motor vehicles to engage and disengage the running engine to the wheel during gear shifting [1] without the need to switch off the engine. There are three types of torque transmission clutch– frictional, hydraulic and positive (or dog) clutch [2]. The mechanical friction clutch is the most commonly used in the automotive sector. This clutch type is made up of the spring-loaded pressure plate, single or multiple clutch disk and the flywheel as shown in Figure 1.0. The clutch disk surface functions to grip the rotating flywheel and transfer the power to turn the wheel shaft and mobilize the vehicle.

Automotive Clutch Evaluation Testing
The friction surface of the clutch disk plays an important role in efficient power transmission from the engine to the wheels. This friction can be translated into the rotational speed response of the clutch when it engages/ disengages. A clutch evaluation test captures the rpm response of the clutch disk when a force is applied to the pressure plate in a set-up similar to a car clutch system. Both measurement output is in the form of electrical signals (voltage).

Hioki HiCorder MR8880-20 For Automotive Clutch Evaluation Testing
Hioki HiCorder MR8880-20 is capable of recording the real-time waveform of the force applied and the rotational speed response during clutch evaluation testing. In this application note, the measured force is in torque value and the rotational speed in revolutions per minute (RPM). Two connecting cords (L9197) connects the torque and speed signal source to two different channels on the memory logger (Figure 2.0)

Set the recording configuration before the start of the test. Use the ‘Setting’ tab to set the recording interval, time/division, and the recording method. Choose the ‘Realtime’ recording method and set a recording interval of 5ms for each data point and time display axis interval of 500 ms/ division. Figure 3.0 below illustrates these settings.

Next, configure the measurement voltage range and the upper limit of measurement for both channels using the [Wave+Set] screen (Figure 4.0).

Use the cursor mode at [Wave+Crsr] screen to determine the RPM at specific torque value. Figure 5.0 list the step-by-step to enter the cursor mode.

Move the cursor to the desired torque value to obtain the corresponding speed value (Figure 6.0). The obtained value can be used to determine the clutch evaluation result. In the example below, the required speed is 3400 ± 200 rpm @ 8.3 Nm torque. The evaluated sample gives a rotational speed of 3586 rpm @ 8.34 Nm torque and therefore passed the requirement.

Hioki HiCorder MR8880-20 offers a versatile yet easy to use solution for clutch evaluation testing on real-time basis. The simple set-up interface and result retrieval enables speedy testing time.

More Information
HiCorder MR8880-20

9 April 2019 : Hioki Launches Power Quality Analyzer PQ3198

Hioki Launches Power Quality Analyzer PQ3198

Revamped Functionality and Specs Simplify Recording and Analysis of Power Supply Issues


New Instrument eliminates the need for a dedicated sensor power supply while enabling power and efficiency measurement of two circuits



April 09, 2019 – Singapore


HIOKI Singapore Pte. Ltd. is pleased to announce the launch of the Power Quality Analyzer PQ3198, a new instrument that revamps the functionality and specifications of its predecessor, the Power Quality Analyzer PW3198. The product makes it even easier to record and analyse power supply issues, including by eliminating the need for a dedicated sensor power supply and by enabling power and efficiency measurement of two circuits.

Development Background
As power circuits become more complex with increasing use of power electronics devices, large equipment, and geographically dispersed power supplies, power supply issues in the form of electronic device malfunctions and failures are becoming more common.


Power quality analyzers are measuring instruments that record and analyze power supply quality in order to investigate the causes of those and similar issues in the field. Since launching the Power Quality Analyzer 3196 in 2001, HIOKI has developed a series of increasingly sophisticated products for the product line to accommodate customer needs while helping them resolve numerous power supply issues around the world.

HIOKI’s line of power quality analyzers currently consists of the mid-range PQ3100, launched in October 2016, and the flagship PW3198, launched in April 2011. Those instruments are paired with voltage cords and current sensors that measure voltage and current, respectively, and some of the latter require a separate, dedicated power supply. After HIOKI added functionality for powering current sensors to the PQ3100, there was increasing demand from customers to do the same for the flagship PW3198, which led HIOKI to redesign the model.






Principal New Functionality
1. Ability to supply power to sensors, eliminating the need for a dedicated power supply
The PQ3198 can supply power to AC flexible sensors*1 and AC/DC sensors*2, eliminating the need to provide a separate, dedicated power supply for those devices as they have required in the past. In addition to making it possible to use the instrument in outdoor locations where power is not readily available, this capability makes it easier to work in confined locations by reducing the number of wires needed to make measurements.


2. Ability to measure power and efficiency on two circuits
The PQ3198 can simultaneously measure power and efficiency on two circuits, for example in the primary (input) side and secondary (output) side of an EV rapid charger’s AC/DC converter or a solar power system.
The instrument can also measure DC to AC inverters with a fundamental frequency of 40 to 70 Hz and a carrier frequency*3of 20 kHz or less.


3. Remote measurement using FTP server functionality
The PQ3198 provides an FTP server function, making it easy to acquire data from the instrument remotely.


4. Extended recording without the need to worry about the number of events (power anomalies)
Whereas the previous model (the PW3198) was able to record a maximum of 1000 events, the PQ3198 boosts that number to 9999. Further, it can record continuously for up to 366 days based on repeat recording settings.


5. Standard support for analysis with PQ ONE analytical software
The PQ3198 ships with PQ ONE, a popular analytical software package that also comes with the Power Quality Analyzer PQ3100. Functionality includes display of event statistics (to display events by date or time of day), EN50160 judgment (for evaluation, analysis, and judgment capability that complies with the EN50160 standard), and report generation.


Principal Markets
Management of power quality and analysis of power supply issues by power companies, electricians, electrical maintenance engineers, building maintenance companies, electrical safety associations, and equipment end-users

*1 AC flexible sensor: A loop-shaped AC sensor that can be bent freely. Used to measure wires with a large diameter and large currents. In the context of the PQ3198, “AC flexible sensors” refers to the AC Flexible Current Sensor CT7044/CT7045/CT7046.
*2: AC/DC sensor: A sensor that can measure either alternating or direct current. In the context of the PQ3198, “AC/DC sensors” refers to the AC/DC Auto Zero Current Sensor CT7731/CT7736/CT7742.
*3: Carrier frequency: The frequency that determines the timing at which the power semiconductors in an inverter circuit switch on and off.



More Information
Power Quality Analyzer PQ3198

3 April 2019 : GENNECT Cross for Windows SF4000 PC Software Updated to Version 2.20

GENNECT Cross for Windows SF4000 PC Software Updated to Version 2.20

April 3, 2019 – Nagano, Japan

Hioki is pleased to announce that SF4000 “GENNECT Cross for Windows,” the free Windows application, has been updated to version 2.20.  With this update, the Power Analyzer PW6001 and PW3390 will be added to the compatible instruments that support real-time measurement (logging / monitoring) of LAN-connected devices.

By linking existing devices such as a data logger (Hioki LR8400, LR8401, LR8402, LR8410, LR8416) and a power analyzer via LAN, test results such as temperature, analog input data, voltage, current, power, efficiency, loss, etc., from all connected devices can be viewed together using the software.

Up to 512 test results including voltage, current, power, efficiency, loss temperature, and various analog input can be combined on one display, making the software extremely effective for integrated evaluation and analysis of many phenomena.

Download GENNECT Cross for Windows ver 2.20

More Information
GENNECT Cross for Windows SF4000
Power Analyzer PW6001

29 January 2019 : Hioki Launches AC Clamp Meter CM4141 and CM4142

Line of Clamp Meters Further Extended to Boost Ease of Use

January 29, 2019 – Nagano, Japan

HIOKI E.E. CORPORATION is pleased to announce the launch of the AC Clamp Meter CM4141/CM4142 (rated for use with currents of up to 2000A), a pair of clamp AC current meters featuring a new jaw shape designed to make the instruments easier to clamp around wires.

Last year, Hioki launched the AC Clamp Meter CM3289 (rated for use with currents of up to 1000 A) in March, followed by the AC/DC Clamp Meter CM4375/CM4376 (also rated for use with currents of up to 1000 A) in October. All three instruments are designed to be easier to fit around wires being measured.  The newly launched CM4141/CM4142 fill out the company’s line of clamp meters while boosting work efficiency and resolving user dissatisfaction stemming from the difficulty of applying conventional clamp meters to wires in an increasing number of settings.

Narrowest width


Traditional design: thick jaws made                 New design: easily slide between
it difficult to get between cables                      narrow gaps with thin sensor

                                                                         Resolved with thin clamp sensor

Traditional approach: attempts to                     New approach: easily measures
snake flexible sensor around cable                   large current with slim clamp
that may lead to electric shock


■ Development Background
Regular maintenance and management are essential in order to keep electrical equipment operating properly in buildings and manufacturing plants.  Clamp meters make it easy to measure current simply by clamping the jaws of the instrument around the cable being measured, and as a result they have entered into wide use in maintenance management applications.
Distribution panels have been shrinking in recent years, with the result that the wires inside them are packed closer together. Less space between adjacent cables makes it harder for technicians to do their jobs.

In addition, separately available flexible sensors can be used to measure thick, high-current cables but must be affixed to the clamp meter in order to do so. Such sensors are bendable, loop-shaped devices that are used by routing one end around the cable to be measured and back to the instrument, posing the risk of contact with energized terminals inside distribution panels.
By improving the shape of their sensors’ jaws, Hioki was able to design the new clamp meters so that they can be more safely and easily routed around thick, high-current cables.

■ CM4141, CM4142 Features
1. New, thinner jaw profile that can be more easily inserted into narrow spaces between cables and clamped around thick cables
Hioki reduced the width of the jaws near the opening to 11 mm to make the instrument easier to clamp around wires (jaw thickness at the same position ranged from 15 mm to 22 mm in previous products).

In addition, whereas the CM3289, which was launched last year with a design that is easier to clamp, can measure cables with a diameter of about 33 mm, the CM4141 and CM4142 can measure cables with a diameter of up to 55 mm, providing the ability to measure even thick cables without needing to connect a flexible sensor.

2. Robust jaws that are strong enough to push and pull wires
Sometimes the jaws have to be pried into place when a large number of cables are packed into a small space. Despite their thin dimensions, the CM4141 and CM4142’s jaws are strong enough to withstand being maneuvered into place.

3. Measure up to 2000 A AC using the true RMS method
The CM4141/CM4142 delivers accurate results even when measuring AC current waveforms that have been distorted by a device such as an inverter or switching power supply.  Whereas the previous model was able to measure currents of up to 1000 A AC, the new models can measure up to 2000 A AC. Since they offer three ranges (60.00 A, 600.0 A, and 2000 A), they can be used in a variety of applications.

4. Significantly reduced workload thanks to a weight of just 300 g
The CM4141/CM4142 is more than 100 g lighter than a conventional clamp meter of the same size. As a result, the load on the hand when holding the instrument for an extended period of time has been significantly reduced.

5. Extensive measurement functionality
The CM4141/CM4142 can measure multiple parameters, including AC current, AC/DC voltage, frequency, continuity, resistance, capacitance, diode, and temperature.

6. Bluetooth® wireless technology (CM4142 only)
HIOKI’s free smartphone app GENNECT Cross can be used to transfer measured values from the CM4142 to a smartphone. In addition to creating simple reports (in PDF format), the app can save data as a CSV file for later editing in Excel.

■ Principal applications and locations of use
• Verifying whether circuit breakers’ current ratings are appropriate
• Verifying the starting current (inrush current) of electrical equipment and conducting maintenance inspections
• Carrying out electrical work, building maintenance, plant maintenance, etc.

■ Series Lineup
AC Clamp Meter CM4141
AC Clamp Meter CM4142  (with Bluetooth® wireless communication)

21 January 2019 : Hioki Launches Flying Probe Tester FA1817

Test Tool Delivers Reliable Detection of Latent Defects on High-Density Printed Wiring Boards

January 21, 2019 – Nagano, Japan

Hioki is pleased to announce the launch of the Flying Probe Tester FA1817, an automatic testing system designed to inspect printed wiring on bare boards*1.

The FA1817’s features and capabilities make it ideal for use in inspecting high-density printed wiring boards. With support for a broad range of test types, from low-resistance measurement to high-insulation-resistance measurement, the system reliably detects the latent defects that trouble end-users.

Typical board defects

In addition, Process Analyzer, a newly developed application that shipsstandard with the FA1817, makes it easy to create statistical data based on on test results and to analyze defects. In this way, the system can be used not only to perform pass/fail testing, but also as an aid in realizing process improvements.

*1 A printed wiring board (PWB) onto which no electronic components have been mounted

Board probing in action

Development Background
Printed circuit boards (PCBs) onto which electronic components have been mounted can be found in industrial equipment, automotive devices, consumer electronics, and other products, where they play an extremely important role by providing device operation and control functionality. To ensure their electronic components function properly, bare boards must exhibit high quality and reliability.

In recent years, miniaturization of electronic devices has seen bare boards with finer-pitch, higher-density patterns, as well as large numbers of layers, with the result that latent defects are becoming more common. Recognizing the needs of customers that wish to improve the quality of such bare boards, Hioki developed the FA1817 as a system capable of detecting a variety of phenomena that can cause latent defects, including open vias, near-open defects, micro-shorts, and arc discharges.

Key Customers
·      Manufacturers of printed wiring boards

Key Features
1. Support for a broad range of test types, from low-resistance measurement to high-insulation-resistance measurement 
Hioki has taken advantage of its exceptional technological capabilities in the areas of low-resistance measurement and insulation resistance measurement to deliver the ability to measure low resistance as well as high insulation resistance of 100 GΩ/250 V (when using dedicated probes and measurement boards).

The FA1817’s low-resistance measurement functionality measures minuscule fluctuations in resistance values to detect open-via defects.  By means of its high-insulation-resistance measurement capabilities, the system also detects insulation abnormalities and arc discharge phenomena caused by the effects of pattern shape anomalies and impurities, voids, and other defects that exist between patterns.

2. Half the impact depth
Traditionally, probes are placed in contact with the board to carry out bare board testing in a process that leaves impact marks on the board. On high-density bare boards, even small marks can have a serious effect. Impact marks from the probes of previous products were already slight, but the FA1817 uses the High-density Probe CP1072, which was developed using proprietary Hioki technology, in order to further reduce the size and depth of these marks. Impact mark depth has been halved compared to that of previous products to minimize damage to bare boards.

3. Optimized probe movement for testing that’s up to 20% faster
By taking advantage of two top arms and two bottom arms to probe target boards efficiently, the FA1817 reduces testing times by up to 20%.

4. Defect analysis with the newly developed Process Analyzer (a standard accessory)

The Process Analyzer application makes it easy to load accumulated test results data in a batch and then create statistical data from it. Test step results can be visualized using such means as value changes, histograms, and distribution maps to facilitate analysis of defects. By generating information about analyzed defects that can be provided as feedback to design and manufacturing processes, the Process Analyzer helps customers improve yields in printed wiring board manufacturing.