Resistance Meters / Battery Testers

Products
How To Use The Product

Resistance Meters

Resistance Meter | RM3542A

RESISTANCE METER   RM3542A

High-Speed High-Stable Resistance Meter with Low-impact Resistance Measurements for Miniature 008004-size Electronic Parts

Resistance Meter | RM3542A

• High-speed resistance meter ideal for automated lines; compatible with super-small electronic components • Testing source: DC • Fastest measurement time: 0.9 ms • Minimum integration time: 0.1 ms • Finest resolution: 0.1 μΩ

10mΩ to 1000MΩ | Resistance Meter RM3545

RESISTANCE METER   RM3545

2.2ms measurement speed
0.01 μΩ resolution

10mΩ to 1000MΩ | Resistance Meter RM3545  

• 2.2ms measurement speed • 0.01 μΩ resolution • Multiplexer Unit (option)

Resistance Meter RM3544

RESISTANCE METER   RM3544

18 ms measurement speed
1 μΩ resolution

Resistance Meter RM3544

• 18 ms measurement speed • 1 μΩ resolution

Resistance Meters RM3548

RESISTANCE METER   RM3548

Portable resistance meter measures from µΩ to MΩ
0.1 μΩ resolution

Resistance Meters RM3548

• Portable resistance meter measures from µΩ to MΩ • 100 ms refresh rate • 0.1 μΩ resolution

Resistance Meter | Resistance HiTester RM3543

RESISTANCE HiTESTER   RM3543

10 mΩ to 1000 Ω DC Resistance Meters with 0.01μΩ Resolution and Strong Noise Immunity for Integration into Automated Production Lines

Resistance Meter | Resistance HiTester RM3543

• For automated lines • DC testing source • 0.1 ms integration time • 0.01 μΩ resolution

Resistance Meter | Resistance HiTester RM3542

RESISTANCE HiTESTER   RM3542

Wide Range 100 mΩ to 100 MΩ DC Resistance Meter with Low Power Resistance Mode for Testing Chip Inductors and EMC Suppression Components on Production Lines

Resistance Meter | Resistance HiTester RM3542

• Ideal for high-speed automated lines • DC testing source • 0.9 ms measurement time • 0.1 ms integration time • 0.1 μΩ resolution

 

Battery Testers

Multiplexer | SWITCH MAINFRAME SW1001

SWITCH MAINFRAME   SW1001

Pair with a measuring instrument to achieve
up to 66 channels of testing

Multiplexer | SWITCH MAINFRAME SW1001

• Pair with a measuring instrument to achieve multi-channel capabilities • Max. 66 channels (2-wire) to max. 18 channels (4-terminal pair)

Multiplexer | SWITCH MAINFRAME SW1002

SWITCH MAINFRAME   SW1002

Pair with a measuring instrument to achieve
up to 264 channels of testing

Multiplexer | SWITCH MAINFRAME SW1002

• Pair with a measuring instrument to achieve multi-channel capabilities • Max. 264 channels (2-wire) to max. 72 channels (4-terminal pair)

Battery Tester | BATTERY HiTESTER BT3564

BATTERY HiTESTER   BT3564

EV and PHEV battery pack testing
Max. applied voltage: 1000 VDC

Battery Tester | BATTERY HiTESTER BT3564

• EV and PHEV battery pack testing • Pack total resistance, bus bar resistance • Testing source: AC 1kHz • Measure voltage up to 1000V

BATTERY TESTER BT3554

BATTERY TESTER   BT3554

Up to large lead-acid batteries
finest resolution: 1μΩ

BATTERY TESTER BT3554

• Up to large lead-acid batteries • Testing source: AC 1kHz • Finest resolution: 1μΩ

Benchtop Digital Multimeter | Precision DC Voltmeter DM7276

PRECISION DC VOLTMETER   DM7276

7-1/2 digit resolution
1-year 9ppm Accuracy

Benchtop Digital Multimeter | Precision DC Voltmeter DM7276  

• Measure DC voltage and temperature simultaneously • 7-1/2 digit resolution • 1-year 9ppm Accuracy

Benchtop Digital Multimeter | Precision DC Voltmeter DM7275

PRECISION DC VOLTMETER   DM7275

7-1/2 digit resolution
1-year 20ppm Accuracy

Benchtop Digital Multimeter | Precision DC Voltmeter DM7275  

• Measure DC voltage and temperature simultaneously • 7-1/2 digit resolution • 1-year 20ppm Accuracy

BATTERY IMPEDANCE METER BT4560

BATTERY IMPEDANCE METER   BT4560

Low-frequency AC-IR method
without charge and discharge

BATTERY IMPEDANCE METER BT4560  

• Low-frequency AC-IR method without charge and discharge • R, X, Z, θ measurement • Testing source from 0.1 Hz

Battery Tester | BT3563

BATTERY HiTESTER   BT3563

The perfect battery tester for production lines
Max. applied voltage: 300VDC

Battery Tester | BT3563

• The perfect battery tester for production lines • Testing source: AC 1kHz • Measure high-voltage battery packs up to 300V

Battery Tester | BT3562

BATTERY HiTESTER   BT3562

The perfect battery tester for production lines
Max. applied voltage: 60VDC

Battery Tester | BT3562

• The perfect battery tester for production lines • Testing source: AC 1kHz • Measure high-voltage battery packs up to 60V

Battery Tester | 3561

BATTERY HiTESTER   3561

For small secondary batteriesg
Max. applied voltage: 22VDC

Battery Tester | 3561

• The perfect battery tester for small secondary batteries • Testing source: AC 1kHz • Measure high-voltage battery packs up to 22V

 

This section explains how the measurement of resistance differs depending on whether a tester or resistance meter is used, and on when to use each instrument. It also describes how a battery’s internal resistance can be measured with a battery tester as an example application (battery impedance measurement).

01. Resistance measurement and low-resistance measurement

Resistance measurement with an analog tester

The figure to the right illustrates an analog tester’s resistance measurement circuit.

Before measuring the resistance Rx, short the test leads and perform zero adjustment. This step serves to correct for the tester’s internal resistance value.

If there is any voltage across the Rx circuit, it will result in a short-circuit, so be sure to check.

The analog tester detects resistance values based on the change in ammeter A when connected to the resistance Rx.

  

Two-terminal measurement with a digital tester and four-terminal measurement with a resistance meter

Most digital testers measure resistance with two terminals. They use a voltmeter to detect the resistance value of resistance R0 while applying a constant current to the measurement target, and the resulting reading includes the wiring resistance r1 and r2. To reduce the impact of the wiring resistance on measured values, it is necessary to perform zero-adjustment by shorting the test leads before measuring the resistance R0.

However, this method is not able to eliminate the effects of the contact resistance between the test leads and the measurement target. In addition, it is not able to yield an accurate reading if the resistance R0 is small.

In four-terminal measurement, the circuit that applies the constant current and the circuit that includes the voltmeter are independent up to both ends of the measurement target. As long as zero-adjustment is performed by properly shorting the four test leads, it is possible not only to eliminate the effects of contact resistance, but also to ignore the effects of wiring resistance values r1 to r4.

Only certain Hioki products, including some bench-top digital multimeters and resistance meters, use four-terminal measurement to measure DC resistance.

Resistance meter temperature correction functionality

The resistance of all objects varies with temperature. Since all targets measured with a resistance meter will not necessarily be at the same temperature, it is necessary to eliminate the effects of temperature in order to ensure consistent testing.

Resistance meters’ temperature correction functionality calculates the difference between the temperature value t acquired from a temperature sensor that is connected to the instrument and the reference temperature t0, applies a correction to the measured resistance value, and displays the result.

In order to make use of this functionality, it is necessary to configure the resistance meter with a temperature coefficient.

In the case of annealed copper wire, a coefficient of 0.00393/°C is used. (This is the standard value used by Hioki resistance meters.)

For more information about temperature coefficients for different materials, please see the user manual that came with your Hioki resistance meter.

Resistance measurement of wires using a resistance meter

Since the resistance of wires varies with their length, a unit known as conductor resistance (Ω/m) is used to express wire resistance.

The 24 AWG (0.2 sq) cables used to carry weak electrical signals in distribution panels have a conductor resistance of 0.09 Ω/m, while 6 AWG (14 sq) power cables have a conductor resistance of 0.0013 Ω/m, and 150 sq. wires have a conductor resistance of 0.00013 Ω/m.

If S represents area (m2), L length (m), and ρ resistivity (ρ・m) in the figure to the right, the wire’s overall resistance value is given by R = ρ × L / S.

 

 

02. Measurement of a battery’s internal resistance with a battery tester and other measurement applications

Principle of battery internal resistance measurement

Battery testers (such as the 3561, BT3562, BT3563, 3555, and BT3554) apply a constant AC current at a measurement frequency of 1 kHz and then calculate the battery’s internal resistance based on the voltage value obtained from an AC voltmeter. As illustrated in the figure, the AC four-terminal method, which connects an AC voltmeter to the battery’s positive and negative electrodes, makes it possible to measure the battery’s internal resistance accurately while minimizing the effects of measurement cable resistance and contact resistance. This technique can be used to measure internal resistance as low as several milliohms. These instruments also enable high-precision DC voltage measurement (OCV), another application in which high accuracy is required for batteries, at 0.01% rdg. By allowing the measurement frequency to be set to a value other than 1 kHz, the Battery Impedance Meter BT4560 can be used to perform more fine-grained testing of internal resistance from Cole-Cole plot measurement. It also delivers measurement accuracy of 0.0035% rdg. for DC voltage measurement (OCV) of batteries.

Internal resistance, battery voltage values, and appropriate battery testers by battery type

The figure illustrates Hioki’s line of battery tester models that measure batteries’ internal resistance (IR) and voltage (open circuit voltage, or OCV) as well as which types of battery each instrument can be used to measure. The BT4560 and 3561 are well suited for use with battery cells designed for electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) as well as with lithium-ion rechargeable batteries used in compact battery packs for mobile devices due to the low internal resistance of these types of cells. By contrast, the BT3562 and BT3563 should be used with battery packs (sets of multiple lithium-ion rechargeable batteries) due to the high battery voltage (OCV) of such configurations. Although the instruments can also be used to measure internal resistance and battery voltage for other rechargeable batteries such as nickel-metal-hydride, lead acid, and nickel-cadmium batteries, you should choose a battery tester on the basis of the battery voltage (OCV).

Measuring the internal voltage of a battery pack (also known as an assembled battery, battery stack, or battery module)

To obtain the required voltage, a battery is constructed by connecting multiple cells in series. To create such a battery pack (also known as an assembled battery, battery stack, or battery module), tabs or busbars are welded in place to connect the cells. The resulting weld resistance is included in measurements of the battery pack’s internal resistance. Since weld anomalies will prevent the battery pack from delivering its full level of performance, it is recommended to test assembled battery packs using a battery tester. The BT3562 can measure the internal resistance of battery packs of up to 60 V, while the BT3563 can measure the internal resistance of battery packs of up to 300 V.

Measuring a battery’s Cole-Cole plot

Broadly speaking, a battery’s internal resistance consists of three components: ohmic resistance (weld resistance), reaction resistance (charge transfer resistance), and diffusional resistance (Warburg impedance). These components are generally calculated by means of Cole-Cole plot (Nyquist plot) measurement. The Battery Impedance Tester BT4560, which allows the measurement frequency to be varied within the range of 100 mHz to 1.05 kHz, is ideal for Cole-Cole plot measurement. The instrument can measure a battery’s effective resistance R and its reactance X. It also ships with standard application software that can render Cole-Cole plots. In addition, LabVIEW can perform equivalent circuit analysis for simple batteries.

Other applications: Measuring the ESR of electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs)

The internal resistance of electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) that belong to Class 1 and are used in backup applications is measured using AC. Hioki battery testers can also be used for simple measurement of Class 2, Class 3, and Class 4 capacitors.  The BT3562 can measure ESR of up to 3.1 kΩ at a frequency of 1 kHz. JIS C5160-1 defines the measurement current for such applications, and the LCR Meter 3523 can be used in applications where the measurement current must conform to the JIS standard. With the BT3562, the measurement current is fixed for each measurement range.  

Measuring the ESR of a lithium-ion capacitor (LIC)

As a result of a phenomenon known as transient recovery voltage, the potential of a lithium-ion capacitor (LIC) or electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC) does not stabilize immediately after the component charges or discharges. If the capacitor’s ESR is measured under those conditions, measured values may fail to stabilize due to the effects of the transient recovery voltage. The Battery HiTester BT4560’s potential gradient correction function can be used to cancel out the effects of transient recovery voltage, making stable ESR measurement possible. The instrument has a maximum resolution of 0.1 μΩ, and it can measure lithium-ion capacitors and electric double-layer capacitors with low ESR values of 1 mΩ or less.

Measuring the internal resistance of a Peltier device

Peltier elements can be used in cooling, heating, and temperature control through application of a DC current. When measuring a Peltier element’s internal resistance with a DC current, the measurement current causes heat flow and temperature changes inside the element, making it impossible to obtain a stable measurement. By using AC current to make the measurement, the amount of heat flow and temperature change can be reduced, enabling the component’s internal resistance to be measured in a stable manner. Since the BT3562 can measure internal resistance using an AC current at a measurement frequency of 1 kHz, the instrument is able to measure the internal resistance of Peltier elements with low resistance values on the order of several milliohms.